Smart Cards

Smart Cards
Smart cards are defined according to :
1. How the card data is read and written?
2. The type of chip implanted within the card and its capabilities.
There is a wide range of options to choose from when designing your system.
smart card basic_EG
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Contactless Cards
Contactless cards use a radio frequency (RFID) between proximity cards and reader without physical insertion of the cards. Instead, the cards are passed along the exterior of the reader and read. The frequency usually includes 3 range: LF 125KHz/134.2KHz, HF 13.56MHz, UHF 860-960MHz.
True read and write contactless cards are first used in transportation applications for quick decrementing and reloading of fare values where their lower security is not an issue. They communicate at 13.56MHz and conform to the ISO 14443 standard. These cards are often protected memory types. They are also gaining popularity in retail stored value since they can speed up transactions without lowering transaction processing revenues (i.e. Visa and MasterCard), unlike traditional smart cards.
Variations of the ISO14443 specification include A, B, C, which specify chips from either specific or various manufacturers.
A — NXP (Philips)
B — Everybody else
C — Sony only chips.
Contactless cards drawbacks include the limits of cryptographic functions and user memory, versus microprocessor cards and the limited distance between card and reader required for operation.
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Contact Cards
Contact cards are the most common type of smart cards. Electrical contacts located on the outside of the card connect to a card reader when the card is inserted. This connector is bonded to the encapsulated chip in the card.
contact card basic_EG
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Hybrid Cards
Hybrid cards have multiple chips in the same card. These are typically attached to each interface separately, such as a MIFARE chip and antenna with a contact 7816 chip in the same card.
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Dual Interface Cards / Combined Cards
Dual interface cards / Combined cards have one chip controlling the communication interfaces. The chip may be attached to the embedded antenna through a hard connection, inductive method or with a flexible bump mechanism.
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Card Function Trade-Offs
Card Function Trade-Offs_EG
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